The most horrific bioterrorist attack in history was that of 1346, during the seige of the city of Caffa (now a popular Crimean Peninsula sea and health resort in S. Ukraine known as Feodosiya)
An invading army of Tartars suffered an epidemic of The Black Death (plague) and in a sordid, desperate and definitely pre-Geneva Convention bid to solve two problems simultaneously, they catapulted the plague-riddled bodies of their dead comrades over the ramparts into the midst of the besieged defenders
The incident is a historic reminder of how easily bioterrorism can become a two-edged sword...
within days, the remnants of both forces were finished off by the now-rampant plague bacteria and no human victory was achieved


photo of biological terrorism warfare book cover - Biological and Toxin Weapons Research, Development and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945, Sipri Chemical and Biological Warfare Studies

Biological and Toxin Weapons:
Research, Development and Use
from the Middle Ages to 1945
(Sipri Chemical & Biological Warfare Studies No. 18)

edited by
Erhard Geissler & John Ellis Van Courtland Moon

- published by Oxford University Press 1999 -

Paperback 296 pages   List price: US$52.00   UK£30.00 currency conversions

*Synopsis      *Review


*ORDERING DETAILS: UK (delivers to Europe)   USA (delivers world-wide)




An interdisciplinary textbook which analyzes the origins of biological warfare planning and preparation up to the end of World War II. In the period between World War I and World War II, growing understanding of the propagation of disease lead to the fear that potential enemies might be developing biological weapons. Ultimately, several countries developed major biological warfare programmes during World War II.
The relevance of these programs to contemporary concerns is addressed.
The World War II experiences related to biological weapons reinforce the arguments for adoption of a verification protocol to strengthen the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention


The book includes a paper entitled "Biological warfare before 1914" (pages 8-34) by Dr. Mark Wheelis of the Section of Microbiology, University of California, U.S.A., which describes the seige of Caffa (also known as Kaffa) by the Tatars in 1346, which was followed by the spread of plague throughout Europe. The Plague is a disease which had its origins in Asia.





This book is exceptionally well researched and well written. It provides an excellent review of the historical aspects of the use of these agents and the development of laws against Biological weapons. It is recommended for use in colleges and universities that instruct on the need for the development of counter-measures to these agents. Review by AMM, Maryland, USA

*Availability of "Biological and Toxin Weapons": UK (delivery to Europe)   USA (delivery world-wide)


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