Classical Swine Fever in the European Union
Incidence: 2002 1996-2001
USDA assesses risk: PDF - EU submissions - Assessment 2000
UK CSF outbreaks 2000: archive
Control measures by the U.K. State Veterinary Service (SVS) in year 2000 outbreaks
A farm was suspected of having CSF in one of these ways:
farmer or vet reports to SVS that pigs show symptoms connected with farms known to be infected ("tracings") abattoir staff report signs of CSF in slaughter pigs
Suspect farms were served immediately by the State Veterinary Service with a restriction order ("Form A"). Form A forbids pig movement on or off the suspect farm.
If blood or tissue tests confirmed CSF, the pigs on the infected farm were valued, slaughtered and carcasses destroyed (by incineration). The farm may not be restocked for 30 days after the premises were cleansed and disinfected.
A 3 km "protection zone" was set up around a confirmed infected farm. In this area, movement of any pigs (and other farm livestock or horses on pig farms) was banned for 21 days. Pigs can be transported through a protection zone, provided that they do not stop.
Tracing all movements of pigs, feedingstuffs, vehicles & people onto and off the infected premises was initiated.
A Surveillance zone for checking farms for further cases was declared around each protection zone (a minimum 10km radius from the infected site), but take into account natural boundaries such as main roads or rivers.For the first 7 days, no movement out of this zone is permitted. After 7 days, MAFF have powers to licence movement of pigs out of the zone direct for slaughter. Movement of non-slaughter pigs out of the zone is not allowed until 30 days have elapsed.
Protection and Surveillance zones remain in place for 30 days after the disinfection of the infected premises. During this period, the SVS visit all pig farms and may test blood or tissue samples.
Under EU rules all pigs on infected farms must be slaughtered and their carcases destroyed. Compensation is paid at 50% of market value for infected animals and 100% for non-infected animals.
A Form B imposes restrictions on the movement of pigs to and from the named premises. The following rules apply to Form B premises:
No movement of pigs into the named unit
No movement of pigs out of the unit (apart from for immediate slaughter and only if authorised by an Inspector through the issue of a licence)
A Form C notice cancels restrictions on the movement of pigs.
Form D is the notice to be displayed at the entrance to the infected premises. requiring that "No persons except owner/designated farm workers/vet are permitted to enter the premises, unless authorised through a licence by an Inspector".
UK CSF Control - Terminology (NPA)
Past pig epidemics in U.K.The last epidemic of notifiable disease in the UK was "Blue Ear" disease in 1991-1992. Initial outbreaks occurred in May 1991 and were controlled in the same way as the current swine fever outbreaks. In June 1991, as the outbreaks continued, a huge control area was set up in Humberside and adjacent areas, which lasted until October, when the economic and pig welfare damage became intolerable and control of the disease was abandoned. The virus concerned porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) still infects most pig farms in the country today. However, investigations by the State Veterinary Veterinary Service of the Ministry of Agriculture (MAFF) did much to provide new data on how PRRS virus spreads.
The year 2000 outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) are the first outbreaks of CSF in Britain since 1986 when there were 10 outbreaks. A single outbreak was reported in 1987 but retrospectively acknowledged to be a false positive due to border disease virus. In 1971 there were three outbreaks in Humberside. CSF was at one time enzootic (endemic) in the U.K., but was eradicated in 1966.
Around 12 suspected cases of swine fever are reported each year, but there have been more in 1999 & 2000 because of the epidemic of PDNS.
The UK pig population has fallen to 7 million (approximately 600,000 sows) in the last two years as a result of the high value of the GB pound, overproduction of pigs in Europe and increased costs occasioned by BSE controls and pig welfare legislation. In 1999, 160,000 live pigs (predominantly high value breeding stock) were exported from the U.K. - a trade worth £12.5 million.
Diseases of Pigs
of bacterial & viral infections
Diagnosis Source of virus
* PDNS confused with CSF * Economic impact *