Farm Animal Livestock : Pigs Sheep Cattle

Behaviour - Transport - Welfare

factsheets - video clips - literature - publications
Pig Anatomy in 3D - Scale Model [16cm]

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Porcine Anatomy - Internal abdominal organs: diaphragm, heart, pig liver, spleen, small intestine, swine lung, heart, stomach, trachea oesophagus. Skeleton bones: vertebral column, forelimb bones scapula humerus radius bone, metacarpus vertebrae leg bones metatarsus tibia fibula, also snout tail hock teeth ribs.


*Group Housing of Sows: UPDATE

Pig Signals


Pigs are constantly giving out signals about their health, well-being and performance. The art is to perceive these signals and to use them to monitor and improve the nutrition, care and housing of your animals.

It is important not to jump to conclusions, but to keep asking yourself three questions: What do I see? Why has this happened? What does this mean?

For example, why is your sow defecating in a lying area? How did your piglet get that dry cough? Is the aggression shown by your grower-finishing pigs due to a struggle for dominance or a cold draught?

Using the knowledge from this book, you can take focused measures and improve your farm results. The Pig Signals Diamond will help you achieve this. Animal-oriented pig farming means working carefully. A mistake made yesterday can lead to problems tomorrow. So do something about it today. But it all begins with your desire to improve. Only then can you look, think and act!

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Video of Abattoir Techniques for Swine:
Carbon Dioxide Stunning of Pigs

Temple Grandin gives advice on Safe & Effective CO2 Humane Slaughter.

Cow Signals

What behaviour do I see? Why is this happening?

What does this mean?

Cows send out signals continuously about their health, well-being, nutrition, and production. The challenge for the dairy farmer is how to interpret these signals and use them. Vet and bovine behavior specialist, Jan Hulsen, has drawn on his expertise and wide experience of cows and dairy farmers to write Cow Signals: a richly illustrated farmer s guide on how to interpret the behaviour, posture and physical characteristics of groups of cows and individual animals.

When observing cows it is important not to jump to conclusions immediately, but instead always to ask yourself three questions: What do I see? Why has this happened? What does this mean? For example, a lump on a cow s shoulder says something about the feed barrier, while cows standing in cubicles is a sign of mediocre cubicle comfort. Armed with information like this, you can take appropriate remedial action. If you know what to look for, you can pick up the signals everywhere and any time. Cow Signals will show you how.

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PIG TRANSPORT: Regulations & Procedures in the U.K.

Video of Proper Use of Livestock Driving Tools
Pig Handling With Professor Temple Grandin

Farm Animal Welfare Documentary Film - The Life & Work of Temple Grandin

This movie is the true story of the inspirational life of autism-sufferer Temple Grandin who, through perseverance and determination, became a successful animal science expert through her unique way of connecting to farm animals. She is widely recognized within the animal welfare and livestock-handling industries as a pioneer in the ethical treatment of animals.

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Instant Download to Watch on Your Computer Device Now!


*NEW Device to Euthanize Piglet - Humane Alternative to Manual Head Blow: Pig Welfare Videos

*Pork Quality - Boar Taint Genetics to Avoid Castration of Pigs: Pork Quality News

*Geneticaly Modified Farm Animals - Health & Welfare Issues - EU Update: Report

Outdoor Pig Production: Welfare-Friendly Economically Viable Systems in UK & Brazil



*Low Stress Pig Handling - Tips Based on Natural Behaviours: Report

*PIGS - UK Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Livestock: Defra Research Review: UK

Video of Humane Slaughter Abattoir Techniques for Swine: Electrical Stunning

Temple Grandin also gives advice on Safe & Effective Electrical Stunning of Swine & Sheep.


*Castration of Pigs - Impact on Growth Performance - Surgical Compared with Vaccination: 2010

*Environment Enrichment Tools for Pigs - New UK Farm Assurance Scheme Requirements: BPEX

*FACT SHEET: Effect of Diet on Behaviour & Welfare Of Pigs : download



Online Video Film: Pasture Rooting Behaviour in Organic Outdoor Pigs

VIDEO CLIP WINDOW - double-click the arrow to play this video clip - problems?




*FACT SHEET: Minimum Space Allowance for Transportation of Swine by Road: download

Welfare of Pigs from Birth to Slaughter
Welfare of Pigs from Birth to Slaughter - hogs and swine production issues

A reference manual that covers all aspects of pig production, on the basis of scientific research results. This work contains current, easy-to-understand scientific reviews on animal welfare with over 700 specific references to animal welfare. All aspects of animal welfare with respect to pigs are discussed, from genetic selection and breeding to transportation and slaughter. Written by a panel of international scientific and practical industry experts renowned for their knowledge and work in the area of pig welfare. Their common goal was to provide an in-depth review and empirical assessment of pig production concepts, knowledge and techniques in use today. Through scientific examples, the authors explain how improving animal welfare increases profitability. This work is intended for academics, researchers, students, animal welfare associations, industry and anyone who is involved in the production chain or concerned about the welfare of pigs being raised on farms.

Topics: Welfare concepts; Welfare definition; Welfare & Needs; Welfare & farm livestock feelings; Welfare & stress in hogs & swine; Welfare, health & disease; Welfare & pain; Welfare assessment; Neuroendocrine physiology systems; Behaviour; Pork Production & pathology; welfare of pregnant & lactating sows; Hunger & thirst; Comfort & Discomfort; Pain & injuries; Behavioural needs; Fear, stress & suffering; welfare of piglets in litters; Housing requirements; Nutrition & welfare; Vigour, Viability & Health; Welfare of growing & finishing pigs; Welfare recently weaned & nursery swine; The Grow-Finish period; Housing & environmental effects on welfare & meat quality of the Grower-Finisher pig; Opportunities to improve Grow-Finish pig welfare; Welfare of pigs during transport; Loading density; Transport distance & duration; Vehicle design; Non-ambulatory animals & unfit for movement; Effects of preslaughter handling on stress response & meat quality in pigs; Critical points in pre-slaughter period; Welfare of pigs during stunning & slaughter; Handling during stunning; Stun methods; Euthanasia Killing of pigs on the farms during disease outbreaks; Breeding pigs for improved welfare; Genetics and animal breeding; Pig breeding today; Direct influence of breeding procedures on welfare; Heterosis improves piglet vitality; Selection for increased litter size requires selection for piglet survival; Maternal behaviour & fear; Sow’s ability to produce milk and to use body reserves; Relation between growth, leanness, feed conversion & welfare; Leg weakness and longevity; Selection against or for extreme stress sensitivity?; Selection for improved resistance to micro-organisms; Breeding instead of castration?; Selection against ‘bad behaviour’; Selection for decreased environmental sensitivity; Data needed to improve welfare by breeding; Role of cooperation in improving pig welfare; Practical implications; Stockmanship skills: Human-pig relationships; Human-animal relationships in pig production; Fear, productivity & welfare; Stockperson characteristics regulating the pig’s fear of humans; Important job-related characteristics of farm staff personnel; Opportunities to improve human-animal interactions in the pig industry; Training; Selection of stockpeople; Social, ethical and scientific issues; Debate about animal welfare; Animal welfare science; Pork assurance programs; Application of animal welfare science.

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On-Farm Monitoring of Pig Welfare
Edited by A. Velarde & R. Geers
On-Farm Monitoring of Pig Welfare - farm animal livestock production issues

A practical, scientific, multidisciplinary manual reviewing the latest science and technology to evaluate the welfare of pigs on farm. Includes review, assessment and validation of the livestock industry applicable indicators and parameters of well-being in swine. Measuring methods and systems assessed for validity, reliability and feasibility. This wide-ranging book is focussed mainly on animal-based parameters but other environmental and management-based parameters are also described.

Topical EU pig industry welfare issues are analysed by well-known experts in the field of farm animal welfare work particularly aspects related to the farming and production of pigs. This textbook includes critical analysis of on-farm monitoring of pig welfare in relation to the development of certification procedures and evaluation of production systems (farm, transport, slaughter), analysis and solution of welfare-related problems and development of new directions for research projects.

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*DOWNLOAD FREE E-BOOKS on Animal Behaviour

Warthog [Wild relative of Domestic Pig] Fights Lion - Aggressive Territorial Behaviour



Livestock Production and Society
Edited by Dr. R. Geers & Professor F. Madec
  • Welfare evaluation in farm animals
  • Ethical views concerning how to treat farm animals
  • Animal welfare - housing, transport & slaughter - swine, cows, poultry
  • Regional patterns of livestock & poultry production in Europe
  • Values and culture in society: origins and relationship with livestock
  • Public perception of food safety
  • EU Legislation & Regulations + Environmental Issues
  • Sustainable agriculture - Sustainable development
  • Bioaerosol emission from animal houses - Bioscrubbers & Biofilters
  • Manure management & treatment options
  • Alternative production systems for pigs, sheep, cattle
  • Automatic on-line monitoring of livestock - Precision Livestock Farming
  • Real-time sounds analysis to monitor health status of pig herds
  • Identification of behaviour to monitor animal welfare
    Production Diseases in Farm Animals  Edition plus CD of Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals Michigan USAA scientific, multidisciplinary perspective to the dialogue between society and the stakeholders in livestock production. Concerns and problems related to food safety, animal welfare and rural environment are discussed within an wholistic, yet science-based, perspective with a unique approach adding value compared to other textbooks which cover these topics from a specialist point of view. Different issues are developed by well-known experts in their field of work. They are dealing with the latest developments in livestock production in relation to social concerns - regulations, risk communication, reduction of environmental impact, sustainability and economic and social impacts of alternative strategies - and production systems (including transport and slaughter, feeding strategies, waste management and future monitoring technology).

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    Intelligent Pigs? - A Clever Well-trained Miniature Pig
    Training Pigs Video - A Trained Performing Potbelly Pig Demonstrates Tricks

    Changing European Farming Systems for a Better Future:
    New Visions for Farm Animal Welfare
    Changing European Farming Systems for a Better Future - New Visions for Rural Areas in 2006 - HOLISTIC APPROACH TO FARM BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTChanges in market organisation, climatic conditions and societal demands on food quality, animal welfare and environmental quality have created new conditions for farming families to develop their businesses as well as specialist farm advisors and policy makers.

    New social, technical and economic solutions for farming and rural areas are subject to review in this inspiring new book.

    New visions and perspectives for farms, livestock welfare, biodiversity, sustainable farming production systems and rural communities - many of these were a collective development by coalitions of farmers, farmer representatives, researchers, consumers and policy makers. Contributions come from specialists involved in crop and animal production worldwide. There are sections on natural resources management, development of sustainable rural systems, future perspectives for farming families, knowledge systems in transition and learning processes in multi-stakeholder processes.

    A unique collection of contributions presenting insights from both biophysical and social science, showing where practice meets analysis and reflection - offers new perspectives not only for the EU but for rural areas throughout the world!


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    Weaning the Pig:  Concepts and Consequences
    32 Authors include Prof. Peter Brooks, Dr. F. Madec, J.R. Pluske, J. Le Dividich & M.W.A. Verstegen
    Wageningen Agricultural University

    • Growth of the weaned pig
    • Nutritional management of the pig in preparation for weaning
    • Behavioural changes & adaptations associated with weaning
    • Factors affecting voluntary feed intake in weaned piglets
    • Digestive physiology of the weaner hog
    • Aspects of intestinal immunity in the pig around weaning time
    • Nutritional requirements of the weaned pig
    • Environmental requirements & housing of weaned hogs
    • Saving and rearing underprivileged & supernumerary piglets - improving health at weaning
    • Providing assistance to piglets at birth, Cross-fostering, Split weaning
    • Growth potential of underprivileged piglets
    • All-in / All-out management system for farrowing and weaner housing
    • Segregated Early Weaning for Disease Control
    • Productivity and Longevity of Weaned Sows - Reproductive causes of culling

    Weaning the weaner Pig - Housing Feeding Nutrition Diet and Management of Weaners
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    Video Film Clips of Rooting Behavior in Adult Pigs

    Animal Bioethics - Principles & Teaching Methods
    19 chapters by 31 experienced authors from 11 countries

    There is a big public debate and widespread ethical concerns about animal production and our treatment of animals. This book is the first to specifically examine these issues from an educational/teaching perspective - of great value to veterinary, livestock agriculture and science students and teachers. Useful for people interested in developing moral reasoning and communication skills relative to ethics, whether animal centred or in a broader sense.

    • A mirror of myself? Monist & Dualist views of animals
    • Religious resources for animal ethics?
    • Ethics, morals and law relative to animals
    • The Animal Issue: diversity in values & thoughts
    • Analysis of "Animal integrity"
    • The stockperson as a social partner for the farm animals?
    • Associations change public opinion, Breeding methods improve animal well-being
    • Trade regulations, market requirements, social pressures effects, animal-friendly livestock production systems
    • The human-animal bond relationship, higher scientific education, ethical implications
    • Principles and Teaching Methods, objectives
    • Teaching Professional ethics: more than moral cognition alone
    • Teaching animal welfare to veterinary students
    • Teaching ethics to agricultural and veterinary students
    • Your concept of ethics? Questionnaire for agricultural engineering & science students
    • Introduction to Problem-Based Learning - Application to animal bioethics curriculum
    • Construction and application of cases in bioethics education
    • The ethical matrix: framework for teaching ethics to bioscience students
    • Reflective equilibrium method of moral reasoning - teaching animal & veterinary ethics
    • Animal ethics: cases, situations
    • Index: Teaching objectives, strategies, methods
    • Index: Philosophical schools, concepts, authors
    • Historical, philosophical, religious & cultural perspectives & driving forces
    • Ethical principles related to human-animal relationships, and their dynamics
    • Teaching objectives, strategies & methods in farm animal ethics
    • Ethical Farming: Conceptual framework for education & practical understanding
    • Applied teaching, training & communication, curriculum development
    • principles, rationale, examples, animal welfare syllabus
    • Livestock ethical treatment: Case studies, problem-based learning, good practice
    Animal Bioethics Principles and Teaching Methods - farm animal ethical principles related to human-animal relationships
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    The Lactating Sow:  Behaviour - Physiology - Endocrinology - Management
    Edited by Verstegen, Moughan & Schrama, Wageningen Agricultural University & Massey University New Zealand
    17 chapters - Expert Authors - 350 pages

    The Lactating Sow - Housing Feeding and Management of the sow during lactation - care of suckling piglets

    • Overview of biological and zootechnical aspects of lactation in sows
    • Colostrum and sow's milk composition
    • Immunological aspects and Piglet digestion of sow's milk
    • Major factors affecting lactation performance
    • Genetic heritability, diet nutrition, pregnancy feeding, age factors
    • Environmental requirements of lactating sows
    • Relationship between nutritional strategy and reproduction

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    Mental Health - Emotional Life - Well-being and welfare in Animals - pets - zoo animals - farm animal livesotock including swine


    Mental Health & Well-being in Animals

    Latest Mental Illness Concepts, Research and Treatment for Animals
    Important Ground-breaking New Approach to Animal Welfare!
    Contents & Review - Mental Health Manual for Animals


    Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals
    by Robert J Young - UFAW Animal Welfare Series

    Environmental enrichment is one of the key factors in improving the welfare of any type of animal - companion animals, food livestock, laboratory or zoo species. This comprehensive work on the topic covers both scientific principles and practical implementation of environmental enrichment.
    This book is the first to integrate scientific knowledge and principles to show how environmental enrichment can be used on different types of animal. Filling a major gap, it considers the history of animal keeping, legal issues and ethics, right through to a detailed exploration of whether environmental enrichment actually works, the methods involved, and how to design and manage an enrichment program.
    Environmental Enrichment for Captive pet zoo and farm Animals - by Robert J Young - UFAW Animal Welfare SeriesContents

    * Environmental Enrichment: an Historical Perspective
    * Why Bother with Environmental Enrichment?
    * Does Environmental Enrichment Work?
    * Proactive versus Reactive use of Environmental Enrichment
    * Designing an Enrichment Device
    * The Enrichment Programme
    * Enrichment for Different Categories of Animals
    * Food and Foraging Enrichment Programs
    * Social Environmental Enrichment
    * Housing Enrichment Programmes
    * Furniture, Toys and Other Foibles
    * Designing and Analysing Enrichment Studies
    * Information Sources about Environmental Enrichment
    * References

    Robert Young is Professor of Animal Behaviour at the University of Minas Gerais, Brazil where he works on environmental enrichment in zoo animals and also conducts field research on a variety of animal species. He has given lectures, workshops and mini-courses on the principles and methods of environmental enrichment in UK, USA, Denmark, Russia and Brazil.

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    Talented Pig Upstages Simon Cowell on Popular UK Talent Show
    Britain's Got Talent in the form of Rupert The Performing Pig!



    Animal Welfare: Limping Towards Eden
    by Professor John Webster - UFAW Animal Welfare Series
    Animal Welfare - Limping Towards Eden - Definition of food animal livestock welfare - protocols for assessmnet of farm animal welfare

    The science behind animal welfare has progressed significantly, new codes of practice and legislation have come into to being, and innovative methods to assess welfare schemes for food production have emerged. Part of a major animal welfare series, Animal Welfare - Limping Towards Eden is John Webster's new and groundbreaking work on animal welfare. Building on his first book, the highly acclaimed Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden, it not only critically reviews areas of development, but looks to how animal welfare can be improved in the future.
    Special consideration is given to:
    * Defining animal welfare (fit and happy) and establishing a systematic approach for its evaluation (the five freedoms);: Providing a sound ethical framework that affords proper respect to animals within the broader context of our duties as citizens to the welfare of society;
    * Developing comprehensive, robust protocols for assessing animal welfare and the provisions that constitute good husbandry;
    * Introducing an education policy that will increase human awareness of animal welfare problems and promote action to reduce suffering.

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    "Physiology and Behaviour of Animal Suffering" Textbook Physiology and Behavior of Stress in Swine - linked with immune system function and healthGuide Physiology and Behaviour of Stress in Pigs - Importance to Disease Control
    Pig topics include:
    Stress effects on the Immune system, Aggression, Bullying, Castration, Confinement housing, Farrowing, Lameness, Heat stress, Osteochondrosis, Pain, Handling & Restraint, Stunning, Tail biting, Tail docking, Teeth clipping, Transport welfare, Ulcers, Early weaning, Cold stress, Injuries.
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    *Animal Welfare - bestselling books: UK & Europe   Canada   USA

    *Ethology (animal behavior) popular textbooks: UK & Europe   Canada   USA & international
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    *Used Book OffersAnimal Behavior & Welfare

    social behaviors and behavioural needs in farm animals
    Social Behaviour in Farm Animals
    Edited by Dr. Harold W. Gonyou & Dr. L. J. Keeling
    Contents & Review



    farm animal welfare issues discussion reviewWhat Should We Do About Animal Welfare?
    by Dr. Mike Appleby, University of Edinburgh
    Animal welfare is an issue that concerns us all. Recent advances in scientific understanding of welfare and proposals for ways of keeping animals have not fully reached the public domain. This book takes an informative approach aimed at raising the level of public debate and emphasising even though decisions are complex and compromise may sometimes be necessary, action can and should be taken now to improve animal welfare. Michael Appleby was been awarded the Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW) Hulme Fellowship to write this book.
    Key themes
  • rational examination of politics and economics of animal welfare
  • builds on the scientific and philosophical work done to date
  • Noah's new ark: why should we do anything?
  • Humans, animals and machines: understanding animal welfare
  • One big happy family: differences between species
  • To have and to hold: keeping and killing animals
  • Made in our image: selection and modification of animals
  • Home is where the heart is; housing and environments
  • Give and take: animal treatment
  • Buying power: individual action
  • Votes and lobbies; action by society.
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    Books by Dr. Temple Grandin

    Livestock Handling & Transport
    Dr. Temple Grandin
    2nd Edition 2000
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    Genetics of Behavior in domestic farm animalsGenetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
    by Dr.Temple Grandin of Colorado State University
    Includes research on pigs, cattle, sheep, horses, poultry, rats and dogs
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    Farm Livestock Welfare - Ethics of Animal and Farming IssuesLivestock, Ethics & Quality of Life
    by Dr. J Hodges & Prof. I Han
    Contents & Review



    Cognitive Intelligence and Learning ability in domesticated pet and farm animals
    Principles of Animal Cognition

    by William Roberts
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    Pig Behaviour - Swine BehaviorA Quantitative Biology of the Pig
    by I.Kyriazakis (Editor), Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh
    Contents & Review




    Animal WelfareAnimal Welfare
    Editors: Michael C. Appleby & Barry O. Hughes
    Contents & Review



    Livestock Welfare and Human interactionsThe Compassion of Animals

    by Kristin Von Kreisler
    Contents & Review




    Stockpersons & StockmanshipHuman-Livestock Interactions::
    The Stockperson & Productivity & Welfare of Intensively Farmed Animals

    by Paul H. Hemsworth & G.J. Coleman
    Contents & Review



    Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists by Katherine Albro Houpt 3rd editionDomestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians & Animal Scientists
    by Katherine Albro Houpt
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