Classical Swine Fever (CSF)
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Classical Swine Fever - History of series of United Kingdom outbreaks in 2000
Terminology: "cases" versus "outbreaks"
The UK Ministry of Agriculture (MAFF) used the term "case" to describe CSF infection confirmed at a new location, but this generated confusion with the more customary use of "case" to refer to an individual diseased or infected animal, so here we use the internationally accepted "outbreak" to refer to infection at a new location i.e. a farm or abattoir that was previously uninfected.
- CSF Outbreaks in the United Kingdom in 2000 -
(links open in new window)
|Aug. 8||1||Sudbourne, Woodbridge Suffolk
|Nursery pig rearing unit, illness reported Aug. 4, 3,500 weaned pigs in 7 houses. Illness since 11 July when weaned pigs introduced from breeding farm. Infection spread to 4 houses, 1,110 pigs ill or unthrifty, 200 dead. Clinical signs: lethargy, yellow diarrhoea, incoordination, fever, excessive thirst. Skin lesions: ranging from cyanotic patches on ears & abdomen to raised scabby lesions mainly on legs. Autopsies: chronic pneumonia, chronic peritonitis, swollen pale kidneys enlarged, sometimes haemorrhagic, submaxillary lymph nodes.|
protection & surveillance zones
Pigs killed on August 10th, carcases destroyed by rendering, farm disinfection completed 11th.
|Owned or contracted to same company as outbreak 1|
reported as suspects on Aug. 7
Essex herd is a grower unit, supplied (like outbreak 1) from Norfolk outdoor breeding herd.
Essex herd killed on 11th, Norfolk herd killed 14th Aug.
|precautionary slaughtering of multi-site units announced:|
6 nursery farms + restrictions on 6 finishing farms Herd connections diagram
pigs left breeding unit at 3-4 weeks old, spent 6-8 weeks at nursery farms, then 10 weeks at finishing units (production cycle: 20-22 weeks with in/all out housing on all units)
7 day ban on all pig movement in or out of 3 protection & surveillance zones Destruction of first two infected herds completed.
|Aug. 12||No. 5
|2 linked nursery units positive.|
Belgium & Netherlands ban live pig imports.
|Aug. 13||15 suspect outbreaks to date||Norfolk
|Suspect outbreaks: 12 in rearing or fattening premises supplied by Norfolk breeding herd since 1 June, 1 breeding herd in Suffolk, 2 finishing herds in Staffordshire owned by infected company.
Restrictions on 4 breeding herds which supplied Norfolk multiplier breeding herd, plus 47 other breeding herds owned by or contracted to this breeding & production company (42 in East Anglia - 18 already tested, 29 herds to be tested by 18 Aug.)|
Movements of pig transporter that moved weaned pigs from the breeding premises traced and farms it visited served with restriction orders.
|Aug. 14||More herds placed under restrictions||Cheshire
|Report to OIE says virus was in UK since mid-June.|
Crisis meeting of pig producers, MAFF & politicians at Diss, Norfolk.
EU bans live pig & semen exports from England but not other countries of UK until Aug. 31, for review at Standing Veterinary Committee meeting Aug. 22
5 surveillance zones encompass approx 600 farms blocking transport of 50,000 pigs/week, their meat must go for heat treatment
11,000 pigs destroyed so far
|Aug. 15||3 suspect herds under restrictions||Macclesfield, Cheshire
Haxey, North Lincolnshire
|2 of these are finishing units supplied by slaughtered Suffolk nursery unit. EU & trade update. Ban imposed on moving other livestock.|
|Aug. 16||Restrictions on non-pig movements eased.|
USA & Canada ban UK pigs & pig products: report.
|Aug. 17||no new outbreaks since Aug. 12th||Economic & welfare problems from pig movement restrictions but MAFF take a firm line.|
Appeal made for more vets. Non-pig movements eased.
Hopes rise of EU live pig export ban lifting.
|Aug. 18||35 herds under Form A restriction throughout UK||new areas:
Isle of Wight
|Suspect symptoms or contact with infected herds - reflects heightened awareness of CSF risk, many (possibly all) reported suspicions may be congenital tremor, PDNS or other diseases similar CSF|
Agriculture Minister returns from holiday. BBC Report. First pig movement contacts outside East Anglia declared free of infection.
UK Export ban creates glut of pigs: BBC Report
|Aug. 19||Economic &
Welfare crisis present. Minister claims outbreaks over: report.|
CSF virus is found to be a new strain
|Aug. 22||EU ban on live pig & semen exports from England lifted - ban on exports from Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk remains|
Cost of Movement Restrictions
11,000 pigs killed so far. 68 farms in protection zones and 1,342 herds in surveillance zones: EU report.
|Aug. 23||Movement controls cost industry over £1M/week & affect 30% of East Anglia's population of 3M pigs says Paul Smith of "Pigspec".|
Pig vets concerned. Control areas reduced in size.
|Aug. 25||MAFF announce plans to slaughter pigs suffering overcrowding.|
|Aug. 29||Controls cause pig industry crisis.|
Welfare advice from MAFF published.
|Aug. 31||Welfare pig slaughter scheme announced.|
|Sept. 1||Animal Welfare (Disposal) Scheme [pigs which cannot be slaughtered for meat because of movement ban] rejected by pig industry: £35 per pig for each batch averaging > 60 kg per pig + free transport, slaughter, disposal. Overcrowded smaller pigs: £10 per pig culled because of over-crowding or other welfare problems.|
|Sept. 2||More suspect CSF outbreaks reported to OIE|
|Sept. 4||No. 6||Topcroft, near Bungay Norfolk
|3.3 km from outbreak 5 in Surveillance Zone set up August 12. Suspicion of CSF reported by MAFF vet on 31 August, personnel & vehicle links to outbreaks 4 & 5.|
|Sept. 5||No. 7||Suffolk
|Breeding herd contiguous to No.1 & part of same breeding/production company|
Standing Veterinary Committee of European Commission met today (news release) and announced:
a) a ban on live exports from Norfolk, Suffolk extended to 15 October
b) the live export ban on Essex lapses on 15 September if no further outbreaks
c) meat from surveillance zone SF2000/02 (West Norfolk) can be marketed
|Sept. 7||No. 8
also 2 herds (3,000 pigs) outside surveillance areas destroyed as dangerous contacts
|Iken, Woodbridge Suffolk
|Rearer/finisher herd contiguous to No. 7|
Total pigs to be destroyed so far: 27,500
Herd 8 close to outbreak of two days ago
Illicit pig movements by desperate farmers reported.
|Sept. 8||NPA report 3km total pig slaughter zone around Woodbridge to stop disease spread by wild animals, more "killout" zones expected.|
Improved welfare compensation announced & Additional movement control powers resulting in 7 "immediate Movement Restriction Areas" (MRAs) in Norfolk.
4 new herds with suspicions of CSF making 100 since the epizootic began, of which 52 cleared of suspicion. CVO explains latest controls & spread.
Map of 8 outbreaks & 6 active surveillance zones (excluding new MRAs) published by NPA
estimated 150,000 extra pigs held on farms because of movement ban, 700 farms restricted for >4 weeks
|No. 10 is rearing herd - received weaners from No.7|
No. 9 is breeding herd contiguous to No.1
New Map of surveillance zones & MRAs (Movement Restriction Areas) published by NPA. Pig Veterinary Society criticise control policy: PVS
|Sept. 12||No. 11|| Norfolk
|Breeder/rearer - received breeding pigs from No.7|
new Infected Area overlapping area SF 2000/10 More outbreaks expected. Complaints about MAFF reported in press.
Control areas threatened by an acute fuel crisis. Suspected CSF reports since August 8th have risen to 111, of which 57 proved negative
|Sept. 13||No. 12|| Suffolk
|Contract finishing herd within 1 km of No. 4. Part of a large pyramid of herds spread over several counties and extending beyond east Anglia. Fuel crisis begins to resolve|
|Sept. 14||5 new suspect outbreaks reported. Of 47 suspect herds still under investigation, 10 are outside existing control areas, they are in: Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Yorkshire, many of these could be PDNS outbreaks. MAFF appoint new head of epidemic control.|
|Sept. 15||Pig slaughterings down & prices up. MAFF report to OIE. Heavy rain exacerbates horror of overstocked outdoor farms - producers reported to be suicidal at the conditions they are faced with in this crisis.|
|Sept. 17||No. 13||Denton, nr.Harleston
|Breeding herd, Norfolk/Suffolk border near outbreak 5. 6 pigs ill & 1 dead|
38,269 pigs slaughtered in the epidemic so far, of which 30,188 were on infected farms & 8,081 were "dangerous contacts". Fox hunting banned.
|Sept. 18||Norfolk/Suffolk border||New Movement Restriction Area on 10 km radius around map reference TM 174876 Relief fund for producers announced.|
|Sept. 19||6 new suspect outbreaks, total of 137 since epidemic began, 66 of these have proven negative. 58 suspect herds still under investigation, 9 outside existing control areas. Another new head apointed for epidemic control team.|
|Sept. 20||U.S. Department of Agriculture bans pork imports from East Anglia: total UK exports to U.S.A. were worth $11.4M last year (<1% of US pigmeat imports)|
Movement Restriction Area 2000/06 (Norfolk) lifted
|Sept. 21||Movement Restriction Area 2000/07 (Norfolk) lifted|
Farm close to centre of MR2000/08 area (Suffolk) slaughtered as dangerous contact, following movement of pigs from outbreak SF2000/11
|Sept. 22||30,188 pigs slaughtered so far in infected herds, 12,553 killed as dangerous contacts. First Infected Area lifted (from around outbreak 3 on Essex/Suffolk border), releasing 92 farms from movement restrictions placed on 9 August. Other control areas & EU ban on export of live pigs from East Anglia remain until 15 October. MAFF & Pig Industry meet.|
|Sept. 25||CVO makes public statement on criticisms by pig industry|
|Sept. 26||No. 14||Shelton nr. Harleston
|Breeder/finisher herd, no pigs clinically affected, in Infected Area covering outbreaks 4,5,6 12, 13, western boundary of Area enlarged. New Map of Infected Area 2000/14 published.|
|Sept. 28||35,008 pigs slaughtered so far in infected herds, 18,869 slaughtered as dangerous contacts, thousands slaughtered under Pig Welfare Disposal Scheme (PW(D)S)|
Estimated cost of outbreaks is £20 M.
|Sept. 29||Movement Restriction Area MR 2000/09 south Norfolk lifted, imposed 18th September around farm receiving pigs from oubreak 11, all pigs on farm were slaughtered, results negative MAFF report to OIE: text|
|Oct. 3||£25M aid for East Anglia agriculture announced. Concern in media about illegal pig movements.|
|Oct. 4||No. 15
|Yaxham nr. Dereham
|finishing herd in existing control area, herd was destroyed September 21 as "dangerous contact", no pigs clinically affected.|
|Oct. 9||Huge workload for Ministry of Agriculture: so far 2200 farm visits + 2000 movements of pigs, vehicles & people. Veterinary inspectors have visited 116 farms to check pigs entering Pig Welfare disposal scheme. CVO makes a public statement about the situation.|
|Oct. 15||Overseas vets brought in to help MAFF veterinary staff. Pigmeat prices rising. Ministry of Agriculture (MAFF) optimistic that outbreaks are unlikely to spread.|
|Oct. 18||Pig movements allowed within swine fever control areas where MAFF agree welfare or overstocking problems.|
|Oct. 20||Ban on exports of live pigs, embryos or semen from Essex lifted, ban on Norfolk & Suffolk extended until November 15th.|
|160 farms released from Norfolk Infected Area which was imposed on 9 August. Estimated programme for lifting other Control Areas published by MAFF.|
|Nov. 1||Welfare problems compensation package agreed with MAFF (1050 pig farmers have been under pig movement restrictions for up to 3 months causing economic & pig welfare problems)|
Herds where CSF began are sold.
|Nov. 4||No. 16
|breeding/rearing/fattening unit close to outbreaks 2000/6 & 2000/14, 220 pigs ill, 12 dead, MAFF published a map of the location, existing infected area now extended North, detailed maps of affected postcode areas made available by MAFF.|
Prosecution for illegal movement: British Quality Pigs, the major multi-site production company, recently sold, whose pigs were involved in the early swine fever outbreaks faces allegation of transporting on September 5th 884 pigs out of an area subject to pig movement restrictions.
|Nov. 6-14th||MAFF report to OIE: text British Quality Pigs (BQP) prosecuted for alleged illegal pig movement. Agriculture Minister visited CSF area. Communication & diagnosis problems Critique - Norfolk pigkeeper|
Aftermath of the UK Swine Fever Outbreaks in Year 2000
November 20th: Since the first outbreak on August 8th 2000...
40,875 pigs have been slaughtered on 16 infected farms
24,665 pigs have been slaughtered as dangerous contacts on 30 farms
254 herds had been reported as suspected CSF outbreaks, 22 of these were still under investigation & quarantine restriction
Programme for clearing infected zones was updated by MAFF.
November 21st: Parliamentary enquiry
The Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons is holding a short enquiry into the UK pig industry on December 11th. Deadline for submitting written evidence is 1st December, send 20 copies to the Clerk of the Agriculture Committte, Westminster House, 7 Millbank, London SW1P 3JA. Enquiry will cover the outbreaks of swine fever and the pig industry restructuring scheme which forms part of the Government's for Action Plan for Farming
November 23rd: Movement restrictions lifted on 36,000 pigs on 150 pig farms
A revised Infected Area has been declared around outbreak 16. This reduces previous Infected Areas around outbreaks 4,5,6,12,13,14 & 16. According to the NPA these restrictions have been in place since the middle of August subject to further work & satisfactory results the Infected Areas in North Norfolk and on Suffolk coast may be lifted soon
November 24th: Controls lifted on about 122 farms (66,000 pigs)
in zones SF/200010 and SF/200011 in Norfolk
November 26th: Controls lifted on about 84 farms (50,000 pigs)
in zones SF/200010 and SF/200011 in Classical Swine Fever Infected Area SF2000/15 (central Norfolk)
Pig Industry Development Scheme (PIDS): Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) consulting pig industry over introduction of this scheme "to provide advice, service, facilities and financial assistance to British pig producers affected or threatened by pig diseases and in relation to the prevention of pig diseases ". First use of the fund will be to provide top up payments to producers whose pigs are going into the Pig Welfare (Disposal) Scheme in East Anglia following the Classical Swine Fever outbreaks
November 27th: Controls lifted on 92 more farms
revised Infected Area declared 3km radius around SF 2000/09 (outbreak 9) on the coast of Suffolk, reducing previous Infected Area which encompassed outbreaks 1,7,8,9, this releases 46,850 pigs from movement restrictions
November 29th: HRH Prince of Wales makes donation to pig producers in East Anglia
December 3rd: Suspected CSF farm in East Anglia
this is the 74th suspect outbreak to be reported since the last confirmed outbreak. Vast majority of 243 suspect herds have been negative on investigation reports the Evening Star
BQP fined for illegal movement of pigs: British Quality Pigs admitted illegally moving 884 pigs out of infected area in Stradbroke on September 5. BQP pigs were involved in the early swine fever outbreaks, it is the largest outdoor pig production company in UK is part of Associated British Nutrition, with a contract rearing system involving 250 farm in East Anglia
New Interactive Map of control areas provided by MAFF
A team of 50 Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) staff are working around the clock and giving up their holidays to test the thousands of samples from herds remaining under suspicion - the concurrent epidemic of PDNS is creating a massive workload of suspect swine fever herds to investigate
National Pig Association (NPA) call for ban on imports from countries with swine fever: in their submission to The Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons, the National Pig Association comment on the recent CSF outbreaks & industry restructuring plans
Predictions for lifting remaining swine fever controls: a programme for lifting the Infected Areas has been published by MAFF
December 14th: Further Movement Restrictions Lifted
Movement restrictions have now been lifted on the remaining Infected Area in Suffolk by the Swine Fever Declaratory (Amendment) (No 20) Order 2000 However, infected premises and premises where pigs were slaughtered as dangerous contacts are still subject to controls
December 15th: Further Movement Restrictions Lifted
restrictions lifted on another 307 farms on the Norfolk and Suffolk border, restrictions remain on only about 50 premises
December 21st: EU ban on UK pig exports ends
December 22nd 2000: Lifting of most swine fever controls
December 30th 2000: Last movement restriction area lifted
restrictions around the last Infected Premises removed on 30 December by Swine Fever Declaratory (Amendment) (No. 23) Order 2000. Some farms (infected premises or where pigs were slaughtered as dangerous contacts) are still subject to individual restrictions.
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Classical Swine Fever Contingency Plans for Great Britain: DEFRA
UK control - Regulatory impact risk assessment: DEFRA
Coping with Risk in Agriculture
J.B. Hardaker & Prof. Alt Dijkhuizen
Risk assessment & Risk management textbook
Source of virus Control measures Past UK pig epidemics
PDNS confused with CSF: details Economic impact of outbreaks in 2000 *
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