Influenza Virus Epidemics 2010 2009 EU & Global Pandemic Risk Assessment 
Molecular structure of new Influenza A H1N1 Swine Flu virusMolecular structure of new Influenza A H1N1 Swine Flu virus

*Swine Flu Pandemic News        

*NEW*Dread: How Fear and Fantasy Have Fuelled Epidemics from the Black Death to the Avian Flu - The Imagined Epidemic

New Book: "Dread!"      

How Fear and Fantasy Have Fuelled Epidemics
from Black Death to Avian Flu: The Imagined Epidemic



Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus HPAI - "Bird 'flu"

News Reports - Avian, Human & Farm Animal - Bird 'Flu Outbreaks:

constantly updated avian influenza outbreak news links...

OIE: Outbreaks / Disease   Defra UK   Reuters   Media   EU info: Human risk  Farms   Promed   WHO   USDA

*Plant-based Vaccines to Prevent Influenza Infections - New UK research: News

H5N1 Virus Structure & Spread - Animation Video
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*Virucidal Avian Influenza Treatment from Spruce Trees in Wales: News
Influenza:  New & Popular Books on Epidemics & Influenza Viruses
Risk Asssessment for Influenza virus infection  - spread of from farm animal livestock such as pigs goats sheep cows cattle to human adult or child risk of infection in children - disease symptoms and treatment of child infectious epidemics


Constantly updated book reading lists for
influenza virus & epidemics:

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*Outlook - World Bird Flu Epidemic : Pandemic Risk Assesment: News

Video of European Union Measures to Control Avian Influenza
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*Map of HPAI Outbreaks - World Distribution & Occurrence 2005-2009: OIE
*Bird Flu - A Virus of Our Own Hatching - Free Online Book: Michael Greger MD

Human Bird Flu Epidemic - Economic Consequences - Risk Assessment
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*Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in EU - Risk factors for United Kingdom: Defra (1.5Mb)
*Avian Influenza Control in UK & Europe - Risk Management Policy Birds & Pigs: Defra
*Question & Answer on Bird Flu Pandemic - Key facts - Risk Assessment & Control: CDC USA
*Avian Influenza in Europe - Spread & Prevention - Epidemiology in birds: Report

Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Swine

Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Pigs - swine influenza virus, porcine paramyxovirus, classical swine fever, African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, porcine herpesvirus, arboviral infection, emerging viral pathogen Nipah virus, Menangle virus, porcine circovirus PCV2

61 Review papers on economically significant viruses that affect pigs. Viral infections of swine, symptoms and mode of transmission. The role of international agencies in epidemic virus disease control and the social impact of disease control and eradication programs.

Veterinary issues and aspects range from the molecular to the epidemiological levels. Includes swine influenza viruses, porcine paramyxoviruses, classical swine fever, African swine fever, foot and mouth disease, porcine herpesviruses, arboviral infections plus emerging viral pathogens such as Nipah virus, Menangle virus, and porcine circovirus.

Sample pages - Reviews - Ordering information:
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(all deliver world-wide)


*Antiviral influenza treatment with TAMIFLU (oseltamivir), amantadine or rimantidine:
best avoided according to side effects
*Avian Influenza Pandemic - New International Epidemic Control Strategy: FAO

Structure of H5N1 virus & Human Infection Route
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*Prevention & Treatment of Human Influenza Virus Infections: Review

Infectious Diseases Common to People & Animals

Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals Third Edition by Pan American Health Organization
List of Diseases that Humans can Catch from Animals - Prevention, Symptoms, Spread, Control
Bacteria - Fungi - Chlamydia - Viruses - Parasites

3 volume set of manuals: Contents & Review


Highly Pathogenic Influenza - Advice on How to Reduce Your Risk of Infection
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*H5N1 influenza virus - Increased virulence to Chickens & Mammals - Domestic Duck carriers: Report

History of the 2003 European Union Epidemic
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus HPAI H7N7


This avian influenza epidemic cost the European Commission 10M Euros (currency converter)
in compensation ((50%of total losses)

*How the Virus Spread from Poultry to People & Swine: Bird 'flu spread to Pigs & Farmworkers
*EU Official History of the 2003 Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Europe: PDF document


1. Spread in The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany
(in reverse chronological order)

May 16th 2003 - Control Problems in The Netherlands

Pet birds:
There has been some strong opposition by some private owners of avian species.
Some are reported to have hidden their birds in their bathrooms, or transported them to safety outside of compulsory slaughter zones.
This morning a NL radio program interviewed a lady whose house was forcibly entered and raided by policemen and Ministry of Agriculture officials, who proceeded to confiscate their 3 pet chickens that had been hidden in the bathroom.
Migrant workers:
Temporary staff from other countries have been working as clearing teams for poultry farms. Some are alleged to be asylum-seekers working with special permission from the authorities in return for "pocket money". There are reported to be some language problems and lack of familiarity with hygiene standards that may hamper disease control efforts.

May 16th 2003 - New suspected outbreak in Germany

A new suspected outbreak of high pathogenicitiy avian influenza (AI) in Kleve in the NorthWest of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), close to the Dutch border. The poultry flock is very small - only a few hundred birds.
The origin of the virus infection is suspected to be via contact with another farm.
The EU has extended the ban on poultry exports (birds, hatching eggs and fresh unprocessed poultry manure) from NRW for another month. NRW has been given permission to vaccinate zoo birds.
The import ban on live poultry from Germany to the Netherlands is causing economic and livestock welfare (overcrowding) distress for many broiler-producers in Germany who normally send chickens to Dutch slaughterhouses.

May 12th 2003 - EU Influenza Virus Epidemic Update

84.000 birds now preventatively destroyed. Minister Bärbel Höhn, from the state NordRhein Westfalen is requesting EU permission for vaccination of zoo animals. No new suspected cases have been found so far.
2,77 million birds have now been destroyed on 118 farms. Still only 8 outbreaks, affecting two regions in the country.
Agence France Presse report that Pascal Houbaert, spokesman for the AFSCA food safety agency, said on May 11th that Belgian authorities preventatively killed tens of thousands of poultry over the weekend after authorities identified ten farms which may have been infected from Germany. The suspect Belgian farms include four in the French-speaking Wallonia region in the south of Belgium - previous cases were in the North of Belgium.
Netherlands: (Situation on May 9th)
26 million animals (mostly birds) destroyed in total so far. 11 suspected new cases (the number is gradually declining). 250 confirmed cases so far.

To prevent the virus coming back into The Netherlands from Germany, imports of live poultry from Germany to The Netherlands are nowprohibited.

As a result of the complete stand-still during the first 3 weeks of the outbreak in The Netherlands, from now on there are no broilers available from slaughtering and there will be hardly any fresh poultry meat coming onto the Dutch market.

One of the biggest Dutch poultry processors (Storteboom-group) is reported to be in financial difficulties and has ceased all activities until further instructions.               (Source: PDIC correspondent)

May 9th 2003 - Suspected case of new influenza virus infection in Germany

A very serious suspected case of AI has been found on a farm in Schwalmtal, Viersen region, in the German state of NordRhein Westfalen (NRW), close to the border with The Netherlands. The first investigations of the veterinary authorities lead to a fear that AI is now also in Germany. An initial test has confirmed the clinical symptoms. Official confirmation will follow in 7 days. The farm is reported to have 32,000 broiler chickens, all of which will be destroyed.

A complete standstill for 72 hours for all poultry, breeding eggs and manure in NRW has been ordered. This movement ban does not affect poultry products.

Near the affected poultry unit are seven other farms (mainly smaller) which will be preventatively slaughtered. Initially, all poultry in a 1 km zone (0.6 miles) around the suspect case will be destroyed and this may be extended to 3km.               (Source: PDIC correspondent)


*HPAI H7N7 epidemic - more outbreaks confirmed (May 9th): Netherlands   Belgium
May 7th - Update on avian influenza in the Netherlands and Belgium

The Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health yesterday discussed again the avian influenza situation in the Netherlands and Belgium. Since the beginning of the outbreak in the Netherlands on 28 February, 250 infected holdings have been confirmed and another 10 are seriously suspected to be contaminated. In total, approximately 25 million birds have been culled in the Netherlands. On 16 April the disease also spread to Belgium where to date 8 outbreaks have been confirmed. In total, about 2,3 million birds have been culled. The last outbreak in Belgium dates from 24 April. The Committee voted in favour of a European Commission proposal to extend until 16 May the existing measures to prevent the spreading of the disease and to eradicate it. No live poultry, hatching eggs and fresh, unprocessed poultry manure or litter may be exported to other Member States or third countries and, with some derogations, no live poultry and hatching eggs may be transported within the Netherlands or Belgium. The situation will be reviewed at the next meeting of the Committee on Thursday 15 May.   (source: European Commission)


*Animal & Human Epidemics: Popular Books on Disease Risk Analysis & Control
*Animal Disease Control: Wild Health - How animals keep well - What we can learn!



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